Jul 12, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – Genetic studies show that the H5N1 avian influenza virus mutated multiple times as it spread through an Indonesia family in May, but the significance of the changes is uncertain, according to a news report today in Nature.The journal, basing its report on confidential genetic sequence data, published a chart showing that a total of 32 mutations were identified in viruses collected from six patients in the family case cluster. Previous reports from the World Health Organization and other experts gave the impression that only a few mutations had been found.The case cluster in North Sumatra involved a 37-year-old woman who apparently contracted the virus from poultry and then passed it to six relatives before she died. One of those six, a 10-year-old boy, then passed the virus to his father. WHO officials said last month that a specific mutation found in the boy and his father marked the first laboratory confirmation of human-to-human transmission of the virus.On May 23, the WHO said genetic sequencing of two viruses from the case cluster had shown “no evidence of genetic reassortment with human or pig influenza viruses and no evidence of significant mutations.” A month later, at the end of an avian flu conference in Jakarta, WHO officials told reporters the virus had mutated slightly when it infected the 10-year-old boy, and the same mutation showed up in his father. The mutation didn’t make the virus more transmissible or virulent, officials said.The genetic data obtained by Nature came from a presentation by University of Hong Kong virologist Malik Peiris at a closed session of the Jakarta meeting in June, the article says.The magazine says that 21 mutations were identified in a virus from the father of the 10-year-old boy, involving seven of the virus’s eight genes, suggesting that the virus was evolving rapidly as it spread. In addition, from one to four mutations were found in viruses collected from five other patients.The story says one of the mutations confers resistance to the antiviral drug amantadine, a finding not reported by the WHO.However, the virus did not spread beyond the extended family, as the article notes. “Many of the genetic changes did not result in the use of different amino acids by the virus,” the story says. “And there were no amino-acid changes in key receptor binding sites known to affect pathogenicity and transmissibility.”According to the magazine, viruses from six of the eight cases in the cluster have been sequenced, but the WHO has not shared the findings, saying they belong to Indonesia. The data have been released only to a few researchers linked to the WHO and the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, the story says.Virologists quoted by the journal asserted that the withholding of sequence data on H5N1 is hindering scientists’ understanding of the virus. But WHO staff member Paul Gully replied, according to the article, that the agency’s job is investigating outbreaks, not doing academic research, and that labs don’t have the time or resources to do “high-quality sequencing” during outbreaks.See also:May 23 WHO statement on genetic data from the case clusterhttp://www.who.int/csr/don/2006_05_23/en/index.htmlJun 23 CIDRAP News story “H5N1 mutation showed human transmission in Indonesia”
Arsenal have completed the signing of Portugal defender Cedric Soares from Southampton.Advertisement The 28-year-old has joined Mikel Arteta’s side on loan until the end of the season but he only has six months remaining on his contract at Southampton. Loading… He will compete alongside Hector Bellerin for the right-back slot with the Gunners and revealed he nearly joined the club previously in his career, but did not specify when.‘We were close a few years ago, so it’s not the first time,’ Cedric said upon the completion of his move. ‘It didn’t happen that time but now thank God it came true. I’m super happy.‘It was important for me in my career to come here. Southampton gave me the opportunity to play in the Premier League but obviously it’s amazing this step, to come here and play for Arsenal.‘To be able to reach this point is unbelievable. I try to be a guy with energy, a player that goes up and down.‘I like to consider myself a team player and yes, what can I say? It’s difficult when you need to talk about yourself! But again, I will give my 100 per cent for the team and for the fans.’ Read Also: Arsenal miss out on Brazilian target Bruno GuimaraesArsenal technical director Edu said: ‘Cedric is a defender with good experience of the Premier League, and of course at international level.‘He is another strong addition to our defensive unit who will provide our squad with quality. I know he is a player who plays with absolute full commitment and energy.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Promoted ContentInsane 3D Spraying Skills Turn In Incredible Street Art9 Facts You Should Know Before Getting A Tattoo10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do6 Interesting Ways To Make Money With A Drone6 Incredibly Strange Facts About HurricanesBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them6 Ridiculous Health Myths That Are Actually True7 Worst Things To Do To Your PhoneBest & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever Made7 Of The Wealthiest Universities In The WorldYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of AnimeNothing Compares To Stargazing Places Around The World
After dropping the first two games of a three game set against No. 6 North Carolina over the weekend, the USC baseball team managed to avoid a series sweep with a 5-2 victory over the Tar Heels (8-2) on Sunday.The Trojans (8-3) fell behind 1-0 in the bottom of the fourth, and looked as they would go quietly in the top of the fifth. But with two outs, senior outfielder Garret Houts singled and stole second.Junior second baseman Adam Landecker singled him home and advanced to third on a double by senior first baseman Matt Foat. Both scored on a single by senior catcher Kevin Roundtree. Roundtree moved to third on a double by sophomore third baseman Kevin Swick, and both scored on a single by sophomore shortstop James Roberts before the inning finally came to an end.All told, six straight Trojan hitters reached base, all with two outs, and five players scoring to put USC up 5-1.“It just clicked,” said USC coach Frank Cruz of the big fifth inning. “We just got the hits.”Those five runs were more than enough for Trojan starting pitcher Stephen Tarpley. The freshman did not look like one against one of the best teams in college baseball, going six strong innings, allowing two runs on five hits, with just two walks to his seven strikeouts.“Stephen pitched great,” Cruz said. “He really stepped up and helped us get out with a win.”On Saturday, USC got another great performance on the mound, but senior Ben Mount’s seven and 2/3 innings of one-run ball were not enough as the Trojan fell 1-0 in an old-fashioned pitcher’s duel. Tar Heel starter Chris Munnelly allowed a leadoff single to the very first hitter of the game, and then did not give up another hit over seven shutout innings.“Mount threw really, really well,” Cruz said. “It was a great game, but we squandered our best chance to score.”The chance came in the eighth inning when sophomore outfielder Omar Cotto Lozada singled to start the inning and moved to second on a fielder’s choice. Cotto Lozada advanced to third on a wild pitch. He broke for home on another wild pitch, but was tagged out at the plate. It was one of just two times in the game the Trojans even got a runner into scoring position.While the Trojans competed on Saturday, they were torn apart Friday 11-1. The Tar Heels scored three in the second off of senior pitcher Andrew Triggs and two more in the third to put USC in a 5-0 hole early. The Trojans got one back in the seventh, but their bullpen was decimated for six runs over the final two innings to put the game completely out of reach.The Trojans traveled every player on the team to Chapel Hill “as a reward for their hard work in the fall,” according to Cruz. And while USC lost the series, Cruz said he felt his team grew from the experience of the road trip and level of the competition.“We can take this and grow from it,” Cruz said. “But we can’t look behind at it. We’re always looking ahead.”Ahead for the Trojans is another tough matchup. USC returns home Tuesday to host No. 15 Cal State Fullerton at six p.m. at Dedeaux Field.